Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
Intrinsic motivation arises from one’s pure enjoyment and interest in an activity. Intrinsic motivation is said to be enhanced by the extent to which psychological needs (Deci & Ryan, 2000) are fuelled and satisfied, and will manifest in interest and persistence in activities (Deci, Ryan, & Williams, 1996). The resultant engagement in the behaviour is volitional and perceived as autonomous, as it is enacted without reference to external goals, rewards, or pressure.
Extrinsic motivation results from some kind of inducement or coercion through the use of externally regulated events. In this class of motivation, individuals are controlled and do not experience volitional behaviour or a sense of perceived autonomy. The perceived locus of causality will be external to the individual. When motivation is contingency-based, as in extrinsic motivation, the behaviour becomes dependent upon the external contingency (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Once the contingency is revoked, the intended behaviour discontinues. Therefore, extrinsically motivated behaviour is temporarily motivated (Deci, Koestner, & Ryan, 2012). This represents a poor quality of motivation for a student, but it is used often in school contexts (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Eccles, et al., 1993).
Within the framework of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) there are degrees of internalisation in which extrinsically motivated contingencies or activities can be partly internalised and contribute to intrinsically motivated behaviour toward the activity. These events may be pursued for the attainment of future oriented goals indirectly related to the activity. For example, practising a musical instrument for many hours a day is not an interesting activity for most individuals. It is hard work. The motivation to pursue this activity may be the goal of obtaining an advanced diploma or a university degree in music performance. The activity would be conceived as extrinsically motivated, however, some values or relevance are endorsed by the individual and internalised, providing a path towards intrinsic motivation.
Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). Extrinsic rewards and intrinsic motivation in education: reconsidered once again. Review of Educational Research, 71(1), 1-27.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behaviour. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227-268.
Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., & Williams, G. C. (1996). Need satisfaction and the self-regulation of learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 8(3), 165-183.
Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., Midgely, C., Reuman, D., MacIver, D. I., & Feldlaufer, H. (1993). Negative effects of traditional middle schools on students’ motivation. Elementary School Journal, 93(5), 553-574.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). When rewards compete with nature: The undermining of intrinsic motivation and self-regulation. In C. Sansone & J. M. Harackiewicz (Eds.), Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The search for motivation and optimal performance (pp. 14-54). San Diego: Academic Press.